Search

Geoscience

Chair

  • Mark K. Reagan

Professors

  • Jonathan M. Adrain, Ann F. Budd, C. Thomas Foster Jr., Jane A. Gilotti, William C. McClelland, Mark K. Reagan, You-Kuan Zhang

Associate professors

  • E. Arthur Bettis III, Christopher A. Brochu, Jeffrey A. Dorale, David W. Peate, Ingrid Ukstins Peate, Frank H. Weirich

Assistant professors

  • Bradley D. Cramer, Emily S. Finzel, Hallie J. Sims, Adam S. Ward

Adjunct professor

  • David L. Campbell

Adjunct associate professor

  • Brian J. Witzke

Adjunct assistant professors

  • Ray Anderson, Caroline Davis, Rhawn F. Denniston, Keith Schilling, Douglas Schnoebelen, Emily Walsh

Adjunct instructor

  • Tiffany S. Adrain

Professors emeriti

  • Richard G. Baker, Robert S. Carmichael, Lon D. Drake, Philip H. Heckel, Gilbert Klapper, George R. McCormick, Holmes A. Semken, Keene Swett
Undergraduate major: geoscience (B.A., B.S.)
Undergraduate minor: geoscience
Graduate degrees: M.S. in geoscience; Ph.D. in geoscience
Web site: http://geoscience.clas.uiowa.edu/

Geoscience faculty and students study the physical, chemical, and biological systems of Earth. Using modern observational, analytical, and computational methods, they examine how the planet's interior, surface, hydrosphere, and atmosphere have evolved since Earth was born in the solar system 4.6 billion years ago. Topics commonly studied in the department include how plate movements cause earthquakes, volcanoes, and mountain building; global climate change and how climate change and catastrophic events cause changes in biodiversity; how and where economic resources are generated on Earth; and how these resources are located and used in modern society.

The geoscience curriculum provides students with hands-on experience analyzing rocks, minerals, fossils, soils, and waters, generally in a small classroom setting. Much of this experience is obtained in laboratory and field courses. Field courses include travel to other states or countries to view Earth's materials and fossils in the context of their natural surroundings.

The master's degree in geoscience is regarded by most hiring agencies as the working degree, but an undergraduate degree is fully satisfactory in certain teaching, government, and industry situations. The doctoral degree is required for college and university teaching positions.

Many of The University of Iowa's geoscience graduates find employment with resource companies, environmental corporations, and educational institutions. Others continue in graduate school or take jobs with government or conservation agencies. Some intend to enter law, business, or fields such as urban planning, environmental studies, engineering, archaeology, science education, or oceanography as advanced areas. Geoscience provides skills useful for all of these fields.

The department offers a variety of courses appropriate for nonmajors, including several approved for the Natural Sciences requirement of the General Education Program. See "Courses for Nonmajors" below.

Many of the department's faculty members are involved in the interdisciplinary Environmental Sciences Program, and a number of the department's courses satisfy requirements of the Certificate in Sustainability.

Undergraduate Programs of Study

  • Major in geoscience (Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science)
  • Minor in geoscience

Students majoring in geoscience take at least an academic year's work in three allied scientific areas—physics, chemistry, and mathematics—and a semester of biology in addition to a course in each major area of geology.

Geoscience students may elect to pursue an additional major or a minor in a related discipline, usually chemistry, physics, biology, engineering, environmental sciences, or anthropology. See Majors, Minors & Certificates under For Students on the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences web site.

Bachelor of Science

The Bachelor of Science with a major in geoscience requires a minimum of 120 s.h., including at least 69 s.h. (19 courses) of work for the major (38 s.h. in geoscience courses and at least 31 s.h. in supporting disciplines). The program is designed to prepare students for immediate employment after graduation or to enter a graduate program in geology.

Students must complete the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences General Education Program. The department recommends that they fulfill the World Languages requirement with French, German, Russian, or Spanish and the Social Sciences requirement with approved course work in economics, geography, or anthropology.

Transfer students must complete a minimum of 15 s.h. of course work in the Department of Geoscience.

The geoscience major for the Bachelor of Science requires the following course work.

One of these: 

012:003 (GEOS:1030) Introduction to Earth Science4 s.h.
012:005 (GEOS:1050) Introduction to Geology (preferred)4 s.h.

All of these: 

012:004 (GEOS:1040) Evolution and the History of Life4 s.h.
012:041 (GEOS:2410) Mineralogy4 s.h.
012:112 (GEOS:4831) Geologic Field Methods (previously 012:093)3 s.h.
012:113 (GEOS:4832) Geologic Field Analysis3 s.h.
012:130 (GEOS:3300) Sedimentary Geology4 s.h.
012:132 (GEOS:3840) Structural Geology (previously 012:092)4 s.h.
012:150 (GEOS:3500) Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology (previously 012:052)4 s.h.
At least two geoscience electives6-7 s.h.

One of these: 

012:121 (GEOS:3210) Principles of Paleontology3 s.h.
012:149 (GEOS:4490) Elements of Geochemistry3 s.h.
012:166 (GEOS:4630) Hydrogeology3 s.h.
012:179 (GEOS:4790) Engineering Geology3 s.h.
012:180 (GEOS:4800) Survey of Geophysical Methods3 s.h.

At least 8 s.h. of calculus, including one of these: 

22M:026 (MATH:1860) Calculus II5 s.h.
22M:032 (MATH:1560) Engineering Mathematics II: Multivariable Calculus4 s.h.

Bachelor of Science students complete an additional course in mathematics [22M:027 (MATH:2700) Introduction to Linear Algebra or a higher-level course] or computer science [22C:005 (CS:1110) Introduction to Computer Science or a higher-level course] or statistics [22S:030 (STAT:2010) Statistical Methods and Computing or a higher-level course].

They also complete the following course work in chemistry, physics, and biology (these are minimum requirements).

At least 8 s.h. of college-level chemistry is required, including the following sequence or equivalent courses or more advanced courses. Chemistry courses numbered below 004:011 (CHEM:1110) Principles of Chemistry I do not count toward the chemistry requirement for Bachelor of Science students majoring in geoscience. 

004:011 (CHEM:1110)-004:012 (CHEM:1120) Principles of Chemistry I
   and Principles of Chemistry II
8 s.h.

At least 8 s.h. of college-level physics is required, as follows. Physics courses numbered below 029:011 (PHYS:1511) College Physics I do not count toward the physics requirement for Bachelor of Science students majoring in geoscience.

One of these sequences: 

029:011 (PHYS:1511)-029:012 (PHYS:1512) College Physics I
   and College Physics II
8 s.h.
029:081 (PHYS:1611)-029:082 (PHYS:1612) Introductory Physics I
   and Introductory Physics II
8 s.h.

At least one biological science course that includes a laboratory (4 s.h.) is required. Students with an interest in paleontology are encouraged to take 002:031 (BIOL:1411) Foundations of Biology and 002:032 (BIOL:1412) Diversity of Form and Function.

Recommended Options

All B.S. students should take elective courses from the following groups in order to broaden their undergraduate experience and prepare themselves for graduate study or professional employment. Students who have clear career goals are advised to take three or more elective courses from the group that fits their needs most closely. Students also may seek a broad education in geoscience by choosing elective courses from a number of groups.

Quaternary Geology 
012:102 (GEOS:3020) Earth Surface Processes3 s.h.
012:110 (GEOS:3100) Introduction to Applied Remote Sensing4 s.h.
012:136 (GEOS:3360) Soil Genesis and Geomorphology3 s.h.
012:138 (GEOS:3380) Fluvial Geomorphology3 s.h.
012:149 (GEOS:4490) Elements of Geochemistry3 s.h.
012:152 (GEOS:4520) Isotope Geochemistry3 s.h.
012:166 (GEOS:4630) Hydrogeology3 s.h.
012:172 (GEOS:4720) Glacial and Pleistocene Geology3 s.h.
012:178 (GEOS:4870) Applied Geostatistics3 s.h.
012:179 (GEOS:4790) Engineering Geology3 s.h.
012:185 (GEOS:4620) Approaches to Geoarchaeology3 s.h.
Environmental Geology 
012:107 (GEOS:3070) Marine Ecosystems and Conservation3 s.h.
012:108 (GEOS:3080) Introduction to Oceanography2 s.h.
012:110 (GEOS:3100) Introduction to Applied Remote Sensing4 s.h.
012:114 (GEOS:3140) Energy and the Environment3 s.h.
012:138 (GEOS:3380) Fluvial Geomorphology3 s.h.
012:139 (GEOS:3390) Integrated Watershed Analysis3 s.h.
012:140 (GEOS:1400) Natural Disasters3 s.h.
012:149 (GEOS:4490) Elements of Geochemistry3 s.h.
012:152 (GEOS:4520) Isotope Geochemistry3 s.h.
012:166 (GEOS:4630) Hydrogeology3 s.h.
012:168 (GEOS:4680) Field Methods in Hydrologic Science3 s.h.
012:178 (GEOS:4870) Applied Geostatistics3 s.h.
012:179 (GEOS:4790) Engineering Geology3 s.h.
012:180 (GEOS:4800) Survey of Geophysical Methods3 s.h.
Geochemistry 
012:141 (GEOS:3410) Analytical Methods2 s.h.
012:149 (GEOS:4490) Elements of Geochemistry3 s.h.
012:152 (GEOS:4520) Isotope Geochemistry3 s.h.
012:166 (GEOS:4630) Hydrogeology3 s.h.
012:178 (GEOS:4870) Applied Geostatistics3 s.h.
012:191 (GEOS:5820) Tectonics3 s.h.
Tectonics/Petrology 
012:140 (GEOS:1400) Natural Disasters3 s.h.
012:141 (GEOS:3410) Analytical Methods2 s.h.
012:149 (GEOS:4490) Elements of Geochemistry3 s.h.
012:152 (GEOS:4520) Isotope Geochemistry3 s.h.
012:175 (GEOS:4750) Mineral and Petroleum Exploration Geology3 s.h.
012:180 (GEOS:4800) Survey of Geophysical Methods3 s.h.
012:191 (GEOS:5820) Tectonics3 s.h.
Sedimentary Geology 
012:108 (GEOS:3080) Introduction to Oceanography2 s.h.
012:130 (GEOS:3300) Sedimentary Geology4 s.h.
012:138 (GEOS:3380) Fluvial Geomorphology3 s.h.
012:149 (GEOS:4490) Elements of Geochemistry3 s.h.
012:152 (GEOS:4520) Isotope Geochemistry3 s.h.
012:175 (GEOS:4750) Mineral and Petroleum Exploration Geology3 s.h.
012:177 (GEOS:3770) Global Stratigraphy3 s.h.
012:191 (GEOS:5820) Tectonics3 s.h.
Paleobiology 
012:107 (GEOS:3070) Marine Ecosystems and Conservation3 s.h.
012:108 (GEOS:3080) Introduction to Oceanography2 s.h.
012:121 (GEOS:3210) Principles of Paleontology3 s.h.
012:122 (GEOS:3220) Evolution of the Vertebrates3 s.h.
012:130 (GEOS:3300) Sedimentary Geology4 s.h.
012:142 (GEOS:4420) Vertebrate Osteology and Phylogeny3 s.h.
012:144 (GEOS:4440) Phylogenetics and Biodiversity3 s.h.
012:145 (GEOS:4450) Morphometrics3 s.h.
012:149 (GEOS:4490) Elements of Geochemistry3 s.h.
012:152 (GEOS:4520) Isotope Geochemistry3 s.h.
012:170 (GEOS:4700) Evolution of Ecosystems3 s.h.
012:171 (GEOS:4710) Evolution of Plants3 s.h.
012:177 (GEOS:3770) Global Stratigraphy3 s.h.
012:191 (GEOS:5820) Tectonics3 s.h.
Independent Research Option for Geoscience Majors

A junior or senior who is ready to pursue independent research for credit in geoscience may assist a faculty member or graduate student with a current research project [012:019 (GEOS:2190) Directed Study] or may initiate a small-scale project involving a combination of field, laboratory, and library investigation [012:119 (GEOS:3190) Directed Study]. Independent study is encouraged and may result in an honors thesis [012:010 (GEOS:4999) Honors Thesis in Geoscience] or a senior thesis [012:011 (GEOS:4990) Senior Thesis in Geoscience] that may be published subsequently.

Bachelor of Arts

The Bachelor of Arts with a major in geoscience requires a minimum of 120 s.h., including at least 51 s.h. of work for the major (at least 35 s.h. in geoscience courses and at least 16 s.h. in supporting disciplines). The program is designed to provide students with a varied background in geology and a broader choice of electives than is practical in the Bachelor of Science program. The major for the Bachelor of Arts is intended for students who are interested in the fundamentals of geology or earth science teaching (see "B.A. or B.S. with Teacher Licensure" below). Completing the minimum requirements for this degree may not adequately prepare a student for an entry-level professional job in geology.

Students must complete the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences General Education Program. The department recommends that they fulfill the World Languages requirement with French, German, Russian, or Spanish and the Social Sciences requirement with approved course work in economics, geography, or anthropology.

Transfer students must complete a minimum of 15 s.h. of course work in the Department of Geoscience.

The geoscience major for the Bachelor of Arts requires the following course work.

012:041 (GEOS:2410) Mineralogy4 s.h.

One of these: 

012:003 (GEOS:1030) Introduction to Earth Science4 s.h.
012:005 (GEOS:1050) Introduction to Geology4 s.h.

One or both of these: 

012:004 (GEOS:1040) Evolution and the History of Life4 s.h.
012:121 (GEOS:3210) Principles of Paleontology3 s.h.

At least three of these: 

012:130 (GEOS:3300) Sedimentary Geology4 s.h.
012:132 (GEOS:3840) Structural Geology (previously 012:092)4 s.h.
012:136 (GEOS:3360) Soil Genesis and Geomorphology3 s.h.
012:138 (GEOS:3380) Fluvial Geomorphology3 s.h.
012:150 (GEOS:3500) Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology4 s.h.
012:166 (GEOS:4630) Hydrogeology3 s.h.

Geoscience electives12 s.h.

Bachelor of Arts students must complete the following course work in mathematics and chemistry (these are minimum requirements). 

College-level mathematics (may include computer science and statistics)10 s.h.

At least two college-level chemistry courses (either Option 1 or Option 2) are required. Chemistry courses numbered below 004:007 (CHEM:1070) General Chemistry I do not count toward the chemistry requirement for Bachelor of Arts students majoring in geoscience.

One of these sequences: 

004:007 (CHEM:1070)-004:008 (CHEM:1080) General Chemistry I
   and General Chemistry II
6 s.h.
004:011 (CHEM:1110)-004:012 (CHEM:1120) Principles of Chemistry I
   and Principles of Chemistry II
8 s.h.
Field Requirement

To complete the major, students must have field experience. They may take two semesters of 012:018 (GEOS:1180) Geology Field Trip: Selected National Parks or 012:116 (GEOS:3160) Field Trip or one semester of each of the two courses (total of 4 s.h.). Or they may take one semester of 012:112 (GEOS:4831) Geologic Field Methods or the Iowa Lakeside Laboratory session. 

012:018 (GEOS:1180) Geology Field Trip: Selected National Parks2 s.h.
012:116 (GEOS:3160) Field Trip2 s.h.
012:112 (GEOS:4831) Geologic Field Methods (previously 012:093)3 s.h.
One natural science session at Iowa Lakeside Laboratory for a minimum of 3 s.h.
Independent Research Option for Geoscience Majors

A junior or senior who is ready to pursue independent research for credit in geoscience may assist a faculty member or graduate student with a current research project [012:019 (GEOS:2190) Directed Study] or may initiate a small-scale project involving a combination of field, laboratory, and library investigation [012:119 (GEOS:3190) Directed Study]. Independent study is encouraged and may result in an honors thesis [012:010 (GEOS:4999) Honors Thesis in Geoscience] or a senior thesis [012:011 (GEOS:4990) Senior Thesis in Geoscience] that may be published subsequently.

B.A. or B.S. with Teacher Licensure

Geoscience majors interested in earning licensure to teach in elementary and/or secondary schools must complete the College of Education's Teacher Education Program (TEP) in addition to the requirements for the major and all requirements for graduation. The TEP requires several College of Education courses and student teaching. Contact the Office of Education Services for details.

Students must satisfy all degree requirements and complete Teacher Education Program licensure before degree conferral.

Four-Year Graduation Plan

The University of Iowa Four-Year Graduation Plan is being revised. The original Four-Year Graduation Plan continues to apply to students who have already signed it. Students who commit to the four-year plan beginning fall 2013 will be held to the revised requirements. For information about the plan, visit Four-Year Graduation Plan on the First-Year Experience web site.

Honors in the Major

The department offers qualified students the opportunity to graduate with honors in the geoscience major. Departmental honors students must maintain a cumulative g.p.a. of at least 3.33 in all University of Iowa course work and in all geoscience courses. To graduate with honors in geoscience, students must complete a senior thesis, registering in 012:010 (GEOS:4999) Honors Thesis in Geoscience. They must obtain approval of their honors thesis contract from their advisor and the department's undergraduate committee, and they must earn a grade of B or higher in 012:010 (GEOS:4999).

In addition to honors in their majors, undergraduate students have a variety of opportunities for honors study and activities through membership in the University of Iowa Honors Program; visit Honors at Iowa to learn about the University's honors program.

Minor

The minor in geoscience requires a minimum of 15 s.h. in geoscience courses, including 12 s.h. in advanced-level courses offered by the Department of Geoscience at The University of Iowa; 012:041 (GEOS:2410) Mineralogy and all geoscience courses numbered 100 and above are considered advanced for the minor. Students must maintain a g.p.a. of at least 2.00 in the minor. Course work in the minor may not be taken pass/nonpass.

College-level courses in mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology usually are required as collateral work for geology students. Those seeking a minor in geoscience should be sufficiently prepared in the areas of supporting sciences before they take advanced courses in geoscience.

Recommended advanced courses in geoscience that deal with important areas of earth materials and earth processes are as follows. 

012:041 (GEOS:2410) Mineralogy4 s.h.
012:102 (GEOS:3020) Earth Surface Processes3 s.h.
012:107 (GEOS:3070) Marine Ecosystems and Conservation3 s.h.
012:108 (GEOS:3080) Introduction to Oceanography2 s.h.
012:112 (GEOS:4831) Geologic Field Methods (previously 012:093)3 s.h.
012:114 (GEOS:3140) Energy and the Environment3 s.h.
012:121 (GEOS:3210) Principles of Paleontology3 s.h.
012:130 (GEOS:3300) Sedimentary Geology4 s.h.
012:132 (GEOS:3840) Structural Geology (previously 012:092)4 s.h.
012:136 (GEOS:3360) Soil Genesis and Geomorphology3 s.h.
012:138 (GEOS:3380) Fluvial Geomorphology3 s.h.
012:139 (GEOS:3390) Integrated Watershed Analysis3 s.h.
012:149 (GEOS:4490) Elements of Geochemistry3 s.h.
012:150 (GEOS:3500) Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology (previously 012:052)4 s.h.
012:179 (GEOS:4790) Engineering Geology3 s.h.
012:180 (GEOS:4800) Survey of Geophysical Methods3 s.h.
012:191 (GEOS:5820) Tectonics3 s.h.

Courses for Nonmajors

Each year more than 1,800 students enroll in Department of Geoscience introductory courses that are approved for General Education; look for courses with the prefix 012 (GEOS) under "Natural Sciences" in the General Education Program section of the Catalog.

The department also offers the following intermediate courses with few prerequisites.

012:102 (GEOS:3020) Earth Surface Processes3 s.h.
012:107 (GEOS:3070) Marine Ecosystems and Conservation3 s.h.
012:108 (GEOS:3080) Introduction to Oceanography2 s.h.
012:110 (GEOS:3100) Introduction to Applied Remote Sensing4 s.h.
012:114 (GEOS:3140) Energy and the Environment3 s.h.
012:121 (GEOS:3210) Principles of Paleontology3 s.h.

National Honor Society

The department sponsors a chapter of Sigma Gamma Epsilion National Honor Society for the Earth Sciences. Students with an overall g.p.a. of at least 2.80 and at least 3.20 in geoscience courses are considered for membership after they have completed a minimum of 16 s.h. of course work in geoscience. Consult the departmental honors advisor for more information.

Graduate Programs of Study

  • Master of Science in geoscience
  • Doctor of Philosophy in geoscience

The Master of Science program in geoscience prepares students for employment in industry or for doctoral study. The Doctor of Philosophy program is designed to prepare students for future employment in higher education or research and to bring them to the forefront of a specialized area of geoscience.

All geoscience graduate students must meet the admission and degree requirements of the Graduate College; see the Manual of Rules and Regulations of the Graduate College (particularly sections IX, X, and XII) or the Graduate College section of the Catalog. They also should acquaint themselves with the University calendar, for deadline dates and so forth.

All entering graduate students are required to enroll in 012:207 (GEOS:5070) Geologic Orientation during the fall semester of their first year in the graduate program.

The department provides detailed information about current graduate degree requirements and timelines for making satisfactory progress toward a degree in the document "The University of Iowa Guidelines for Graduate Study in Geoscience"; see Graduate Student Guidelines under Academics/Geoscience Graduate Program/Information on the Department of Geoscience web site.

Throughout their graduate study, all M.S. and Ph.D. students must maintain a g.p.a. of at least 3.00 on all course work required for their degree and on all graduate-level geoscience course work. Students whose grade-point average drops below 3.00 are placed on academic probation.

Geoscience graduate students are encouraged to present their research at local, regional, national, or international meetings. The department provides partial funding for travel to such meetings.

Master of Science

The Master of Science degree in geoscience requires a minimum of 30 s.h. of graduate credit. The program is designed primarily to prepare students for employment in industry or for study toward a Ph.D. degree. M.S. students may count up to 8 s.h. of research credit toward the 30 s.h. required for the degree. They must earn at least 24 s.h. toward the degree in University of Iowa courses taken after they enroll in the program. M.S. students also must complete 012:201 (GEOS:5010) Geoscience Seminar Series each semester until they defend their thesis.

M.S. thesis students are responsible for obtaining their advisory committee's approval of a suitable program of course work and for satisfactory development of research plans as outlined in a thesis proposal, which should be completed and approved by the department chair before the end of the second semester of full-time study. The thesis typically has depth and breadth similar to those of one published research paper. Thesis students must deliver a half-hour public presentation of their thesis, followed by an oral defense. They also are required to present their research at a local, regional, national, or international meeting approved by the department chair before they may graduate.

Individuals interested in pursuing the M.S. without thesis must obtain the department chair's permission. The program is designed for students with extensive geological background and experience. Requirements for the nonthesis option are similar to those for the M.S. with thesis, except that in place of the thesis, nonthesis students submit a manuscript that their thesis committee deems acceptable for submission for publication. The student may choose to submit a previously published manuscript. Nonthesis students also must take a final examination that covers course work and the work done in place of the thesis.

Doctor of Philosophy

The Doctor of Philosophy degree in geoscience requires a minimum of 72 s.h. of graduate credit. The program is designed to prepare students for future employment in higher education or research and to bring them to the forefront of a specialized area of geoscience.

The Ph.D. requires a dissertation, which has the approximate research content of three published papers.

Ph.D. students usually enter the program with established fields of interest and a research advisor already selected. Under exceptional circumstances, a student may be admitted to the Ph.D. program without an established field of interest.

Entering Ph.D. students must consult with a research advisor or the department's director of graduate study before they enroll in courses. By the first month of their second semester of doctoral study, all Ph.D. students must select an advisor. Each student also must select a thesis topic and forward it to the department chair for approval by the end of the first month of the second semester of doctoral study.

Within broad limits, Ph.D. students should select courses that reflect their individual needs, interests, and talents; their advisor and advisory committee must approve their course selections.

During the second semester of doctoral study, each Ph.D. student should propose an advisory committee of at least five faculty members. Before the end of the second semester of doctoral study, each student must obtain his or her committee's approval of a suitable plan of study, which is then submitted to the department chair for approval. In consultation with the advisor and other faculty members, each doctoral candidate prepares a formal dissertation proposal, which must be submitted to the department chair by the end of the candidate's third semester of doctoral study.

Students are required to include in their plan of study at least 18 s.h. of regular course work taught by tenured or tenure-track faculty members of the Department of Geoscience. Students must earn the 18 s.h. after being admitted to and enrolling in the Ph.D. program. Directed study and research credit do not count toward the required 18 s.h.

Ph.D. students must enroll in 012:201 (GEOS:5010) Geoscience Seminar Series each semester they are registered until they successfully defend their dissertations, or for two consecutive semesters after the semester in which they pass their comprehensive examination, whichever comes first.

After earning their first 24 s.h. of graduate credit, Ph.D. students must either be enrolled at least two consecutive semesters in full-time study (at least 9 s.h. per semester) at The University of Iowa, or be enrolled three consecutive semesters for at least 6 s.h. per semester at the University, during which time they hold at least a one-quarter-time assistantship that is certified by the department as contributing to their doctoral program.

Students should complete most of their course work before taking the comprehensive examination, which consists of both written and oral portions and which must be passed before the end of the fourth semester of doctoral study.

Once Ph.D. candidates have passed the comprehensive examination, they are required to register each semester until they receive the degree. Candidates who have completed their plan of study may register for 000:002 (GRAD:6002) Doctoral Continuous Registration or 000:003 (GRAD:6003) Doctoral Final Registration.

Students must submit their written dissertation to the committee at least two weeks before the final examination. All Ph.D. candidates must deliver a one-hour public presentation associated with the dissertation defense. They also are required to submit a manuscript presenting the results of their graduate research to a refereed journal or other publication approved by the department chair before they may defend their dissertation.

Facilities

Resources and equipment available for research in the Department of Geoscience include the following.

Computer facilities: three teaching classrooms with 10-12 networked PC workstations; a computing classroom with 20 PCs and 10 Macs with GIS, GMS, remote sensing, image analysis, and specialized computational software packages; a student computer room with 6 PCs and 2 Macs; and a number of multiprocessor workstations in research laboratories.

Environmental and Hydrogeology Laboratory: permeameters and tensionometers; pumping and slug/bail test units with transducers and data-loggers; water-quality analysis facility; advanced groundwater modeling and geostatistics software; advanced data logging systems for field research; 3-D sensor arrays (wind and water systems); and facilities for field instrumentation design and construction.

Environmental Instrumentation Laboratories: storage, testing, and teaching facility focusing on field instrumentation; assembly, housing, and testing of climatic, meteorological, fluvial, water quality and associated environmental instrumentation data recording systems and sampling systems.

Geomorphic Computing Laboratory: high-end visualization, digitizing, remote sensing and GIS systems; and high-end multiprocessor workstations.

Morphometric laboratories: reflex microscope and microscribe for capturing 3-D data; high-resolution digital cameras and microscopes for 2-D image analysis; and laboratories for micro- and macro-fossil preparation.

Paleontological Repository: more than a million specimens, including some 25,000 type and referred specimens, with 6,000-7,000 primary types; invertebrate, vertebrate, and plant fossils of all geologic ages, and more than 90 percent Paleozoic invertebrates; the fifth-largest university collection in North America (CONARIP 1977).

Petrology and geochemistry laboratories: laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LA-ICPMS); clean laboratory for preparation of samples for elemental and isotopic analysis; alpha- and gamma-spectrometry laboratories; image analysis; heating freezing stage; petrographic microscopes; photo microscopy; wet-chemistry facilities; rock preparation and mineral separation; UNIX, Windows, and Mac workstations for data analysis and modeling; and one atm gas-mixing furnace for melt inclusion homogenization.

Quaternary Materials Laboratory: pipette grain-size analysis apparatus; chittick apparatus; Sedigraph 5100 X-ray particle-size analyzer; Horiba Camsizer L digital image particle analyzer; wet-chemistry facilities; C-H-N element analyzer; a Flotech flotation system; and a Giddings drill rig.

Scanning Electron Microscope: Hitachi S-3400N, a variable-pressure scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with a motorized stage, large chamber, and digital image capture; capable of imaging specimens with no metal coating, or specimens that are slightly hydrated or porous, as well as conventionally processed specimens; equipped with a Bruker AXS Quantax 400 X-ray microanalysis system; XFlash silicon drift detector with excellent energy resolution and light element detection, providing ultra-fast acquisition of line scans and elemental maps.

Sedimentary geology laboratories: water ion chromatograph; image analysis; Sedigraph X-ray particle-size analyzer; Horiba Camsizer L digital image particle analyzer; and a soil/sediment characterization laboratory.

Thin-section and rock preparation laboratory: diamond saws and specialized grinding equipment used to prepare ultrathin slices (30 microns thick) of rocks and fossils for microscopic and electron microprobe analysis.

Cooperative Activities

The department does collaborative work with the Iowa Geological & Water Survey and the Office of the State Archaeologist of Iowa. Geoscience students sometimes work on projects for the survey.

The Departments of Anthropology, Biology, Chemistry, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Geography, and Geoscience share services, expertise, joint instruction, and equipment. The geoscience department is an important participant in the Iowa Quaternary Studies group, an interdisciplinary program that promotes projects combining work in anthropology, biology, geography, geology, and statistics. Course work, degree programs, and facilities are shared among departments. The geoscience department and its faculty also support and actively participate in the interdisciplinary Environmental Sciences Program, which offers an undergraduate major (Bachelor of Science), and a number of the department's courses satisfy requirements of the Certificate in Sustainability.

Field Trips

Field trips are integral parts of several courses in geoscience, with frequent weekend general-interest events. The geology of the Iowa City region is characterized by Quaternary glacial sediments on a largely Paleozoic sedimentary section a few hundred meters thick, overlying a Precambrian crystalline basement. Marine and terrestrial fossil assemblages, extensive reefs, and unique geode sites are located within a few hours' drive. Numerous Pleistocene glaciations are represented in Iowa, and field studies of landforms, exposures, and cores continue to yield information on sedimentology, stratigraphy, soil formation, paleopedology, and fossil biotas from both glacial and interglacial deposits.

Spring break provides time for longer trips, which are open to all geoscience students. In recent years, students have traveled to the southern Appalachians, Arizona, China, Death Valley, Dominican Republic, the Florida Keys, Hawaii, New Mexico, the Ozarks, Puerto Rico, and Texas. Advanced classes have visited California, Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, Wisconsin, and Ontario, Canada.     

Courses

Not all courses are offered every year.

Primarily for Undergraduates

012:003 (GEOS:1030) Introduction to Earth Science3-4 s.h.
Relationships between plate tectonics, geologic time, and the rock cycle with volcanoes and igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic rocks; fossils; radioactive isotopes; landscape evolution; mountain building; natural resources; their impacts on civilization. GE: Natural Sciences without Lab; Natural Sciences with Lab. Same as 053:003 (CEE:1030).
 
012:004 (GEOS:1040) Evolution and the History of Life3-4 s.h.
Fossils over the past 3.5 billion years, origin and evolution of life, evolutionary radiations and mass extinctions, the invasion of land, dinosaurs, the age of mammals, relationship between biological systems and environmental change in earth history. Offered spring semesters. GE: Natural Sciences without Lab; Natural Sciences with Lab.
 
012:005 (GEOS:1050) Introduction to Geology4 s.h.
Minerals, rocks, and rock‑forming processes (including volcanoes and sedimentary environments); surface processes (rivers, groundwater, glaciers, deserts, ocean shorelines), major earth processes (continental drift, plate tectonics, earthquakes, mountain building); impact on civilization. Offered fall semesters. GE: Natural Sciences with Lab.
 
012:007 (GEOS:1070) Age of Dinosaurs4 s.h.
Origin and evolutionary history of dinosaurs; diversity of dinosaurian groups, their geographic distributions and paleoecology; origins of flight among dinosaurs; environmental context, including other animals and plants that lived alongside dinosaurs; the so‑called extinction of dinosaurs and radiation of modern forms; the role dinosaurs play in the interaction between science and the popular media. Offered fall semesters. GE: Natural Sciences with Lab.
 
012:008 (GEOS:1080) Introduction to Environmental Science3-4 s.h.
Biological and physical character of the Earth; interaction of humans with the environment, including impacts on ecosystems, climate, natural processes, resources; alternative options, including sustainability, waste management, energy, land reform. GE: Natural Sciences without Lab; Natural Sciences with Lab. Same as 159:008 (ENVS:1080).
 
012:009 (GEOS:1090) Introduction to Environmental Sciences Laboratory1 s.h.
Laboratory component of 012:008 (GEOS:1080). Requirements: completion of 3 s.h. in 012:008 (GEOS:1080) or 159:008 (ENVS:1080); or 3 s.h. of transfer equivalent. GE: Natural Sciences Lab only. Same as 159:009 (ENVS:1090).
 
012:010 (GEOS:4999) Honors Thesis in Geosciencearr.
Independent research resulting in an honors thesis. Requirements: honors standing.
 
012:011 (GEOS:4990) Senior Thesis in Geosciencearr.
Independent research resulting in a senior thesis. Requirements: senior standing.
 
012:015 (GEOS:2115) History and Science of Oil3 s.h.
History, politics, and science of oil and oil industry. Same as 159:015 (ENVS:2115).
 
012:017 (GEOS:1170) Geology of the U.S. National Parks2 s.h.
Geologic features, geologic history, important biological and archaeological characteristics, with emphasis on features that caused certain areas to be included in national park system. Offered spring semesters.
 
012:018 (GEOS:1180) Geology Field Trip: Selected National Parks2 s.h.
Observation, interpretation of prominent geologic, geomorphic, biological features; semester‑break or semester‑end visits to different parks or groups of parks each year. Offered spring semesters.
 
012:019 (GEOS:2190) Directed Studyarr.
Special topics, independent research.
 
012:020 (GEOS:1020) Loess Hills Service Learning Trip1 s.h.
Special topics, directed research.
 
012:021 (GEOS:1021) Spring Break Service Learning Trip1 s.h.
Special topics, directed research.
 
012:029 (GEOS:1000) First-Year Seminar1-2 s.h.
Small discussion class taught by a faculty member; topics chosen by instructor; may include outside activities (e.g., films, lectures, performances, readings, visits to research facilities). Requirements: first‑ or second‑semester standing.
 
012:041 (GEOS:2410) Mineralogy4 s.h.
Physical, chemical, and optical properties of minerals; phase relations; structures; associations; diagnostic features for identification. Offered fall semesters. Prerequisites: 012:003 (GEOS:1030) or 012:005 (GEOS:1050), 22M:001 (MATH:0100) or 22M:003 (MATH:0300) or 22M:005 (MATH:1010), and 004:007 (CHEM:1070) or 004:011 (CHEM:1110).
 
012:045 (GEOS:1060) Origins of Life in the Universe (Part 1)3 s.h.
Fundamental questions (How old is the universe? What is the nature of life? How has life evolved on Earth? What are our human origins? Are there other habitable planets in the universe?) that revolve around understanding origins from different perspectives (i.e., astronomy, physics, geoscience, biology, chemistry, anthropology); work with faculty from several departments to investigate these questions; inquiry‑based activities to build success in critical thinking, teamwork, effective written and oral communication; origin of the universe, biochemistry of life, and origin of life on Earth; first of a two‑part sequence. Recommendations: first‑year or sophomore standing. GE: Natural Sciences without Lab. Same as 029:040 (ASTR:1060), 002:050 (BIOL:1060).
 
012:046 (GEOS:1061) Origins of Life in the Universe (Part 2)4 s.h.
Fundamental questions (How old is the universe? What is the nature of life? How has life evolved on Earth? What are our human origins? Are there other habitable planets in the universe?) that revolve around understanding origins from different perspectives (i.e., astronomy, physics, geoscience, biology, chemistry, anthropology); work with faculty from several departments to investigate these questions; inquiry‑based activities to build success in critical thinking, teamwork, and effective written and oral communication; second of a two‑part sequence. Prerequisites: 029:040 (ASTR:1060) or 002:050 (BIOL:1060) or 012:045 (GEOS:1060). Recommendations: first‑year or sophomore standing. GE: Natural Sciences with Lab. Same as 029:041 (ASTR:1061), 002:051 (BIOL:1061), 113:041 (ANTH:1061).
 

For Undergraduate and Graduate Students

012:100 (GEOS:3000) Geologic Training Assignment1-3 s.h.
Practical experience. Requirements: grade of C or higher in 012:150 (GEOS:3500) and geology g.p.a. of at least 3.00.
 
012:102 (GEOS:3020) Earth Surface Processes3 s.h.
Basic geomorphic and environmental processes that shape the earth's surface; emphasis on erosion, transport, deposition by land mass movement (creep, landslides, earth flow), fluid agents (wind, water, ice); methods used to study these processes. Prerequisites: 012:005 (GEOS:1050) or 012:008 (GEOS:1080) or 044:003 (GEOG:1020) or 159:008 (ENVS:1080). Same as 159:102 (ENVS:3020), 044:102 (GEOG:3020).
 
012:104 (GEOS:2310) Climatology3 s.h.
Boundary layer processes that drive atmospheric dynamics; exchanges of energy and water at simple and complex surfaces; global climate change records, theories, models; impacts of climate on society. Prerequisites: 044:003 (GEOG:1020). Same as 044:101 (GEOG:2310).
 
012:107 (GEOS:3070) Marine Ecosystems and Conservation3 s.h.
Introduction to ocean ecosystems, including coral reefs, mangroves, estuaries and salt marshes, sandy and rocky shores, seagrass and kelp beds, the deep sea, plankton; biodiversity of each ecosystem; interrelationship of biota and physical/chemical environment; interactions among organisms, including food webs and symbiosis; local and global threats such as overfishing, pollution, ocean acidification, global warming, sea level change; ongoing biodiversity crisis, solutions for conservation problems.
 
012:108 (GEOS:3080) Introduction to Oceanography2 s.h.
Descriptive, chemical, physical, biological, geological aspects of oceans; impact on weather, climate, shorelines, food supply, other aspects of civilization. Offered spring semesters. Recommendations: knowledge of basic chemistry, biology, physics, earth science.
 
012:110 (GEOS:3100) Introduction to Applied Remote Sensing4 s.h.
Remote sensing of the earth's surface from aircraft, satellites; aerial photograph interpretation; remote sensing systems, methods, data analysis using electromagnetic spectrum and digital processing techniques, including visible, infrared, microwave radiation; remote sensing applied to geologic and environmental problems. Prerequisites: 012:003 (GEOS:1030) or 012:005 (GEOS:1050) or 012:008 (GEOS:1080). Same as 159:110 (ENVS:3100).
 
012:112 (GEOS:4831) Geologic Field Methods3 s.h.
Introduction to basic methods of geologic field work in southwest Montana using topographic maps and GPS to locate oneself, identifying geologic map units (including superficial deposits), recognizing geologic contacts, constructing stratigraphic sections, measuring planar structures, and making geologic maps complete with a legend and cross‑section. Offered during three‑week summer session. Prerequisites: 012:003 (GEOS:1030) or 012:005 (GEOS:1050) or 012:008 (GEOS:1080) or 012:140 (GEOS:1400).
 
012:113 (GEOS:4832) Geologic Field Analysis3 s.h.
Structural, stratigraphic, and regional analysis of geology in the Rocky Mountains of Montana; emphasis on making reasonable geologic interpretations from field relationships; first two weeks involve mapping projects in the vicinity of Dillon, Montana that build on the experience gained in 012:112 (GEOS:4831); third week involves a capstone experience dedicated to synthesizing the geology of a fold‑and‑thrust belt near Glacier National Park. Offered three‑week summer session. Prerequisites: 012:112 (GEOS:4831) and 012:132 (GEOS:3840).
 
012:114 (GEOS:3140) Energy and the Environment3 s.h.
Scientific concepts related to potentially significant energy sources of the 21st century; environmental impacts, positive and negative, of each energy source as well as geologic and geographical distributions and applications. GE: Natural Sciences without Lab.
 
012:116 (GEOS:3160) Field Trip2 s.h.
Field trip to an area of geologic interest, such as carbonate area of Florida, Grand Canyon (Arizona), Rio Grande Rift (New Mexico), Death Valley (California, Nevada), Appalachian Mountains (Virginia); preceded by weekly discussions of destination's geology. Offered spring semester.
 
012:119 (GEOS:3190) Directed Studyarr.
Special topics, independent research.
 
012:120 (GEOS:3200) Collection Care and Management3 s.h.
How a museum's management policy relates to its administrative, legal, and ethical obligations to its collections; acquisitions, deaccessions, collection use, data standards, storage environment, health, safety, documentation. Same as 024:120 (MUSM:3200).
 
012:121 (GEOS:3210) Principles of Paleontology3 s.h.
Patterns of evolution in fossil record; species and analysis of their evolutionary relationships; paleoecology, paleocommunity evolution; evolutionary radiation and mass extinctions; large‑scale relationships between biodiversity and climatic change. Offered fall semesters.
 
012:122 (GEOS:3220) Evolution of the Vertebrates3 s.h.
Evolutionary history of vertebrates revealed by fossils and information from living animals; biogeographic, stratigraphic, paleoecological aspects of selected groups, especially mammals and dinosaurs; transitions from aquatic to terrestrial life, origins of flight, major events in vertebrate history (including mass extinctions and explosive radiations). Requirements: introductory course in geoscience or bioscience.
 
012:126 (GEOS:3260) Wetlands: Function, Geography, and Management3 s.h.
Hydrological, geomorphological, and ecological processes and their interaction in wetlands; geographic differences in wetlands based on climate and hydrology; wetlands, lakes, and rivers; role of wetlands in drainage basin hydrology and flooding; values and valuation of wetlands; wetland law and wetland delineation; wetlands and water resources. Prerequisites: 044:101 (GEOG:2310) or 044:103 (GEOG:2374). Same as 044:126 (GEOG:3320).
 
012:130 (GEOS:3300) Sedimentary Geology4 s.h.
Basic concepts of sedimentology, stratigraphy, depositional environments, sedimentary petrology; hands‑on analyses of sediments and sedimentary rocks, including thin‑section petrography; lecture/laboratory.  Offered fall semesters. Prerequisites: 012:003 (GEOS:1030) or 012:005 (GEOS:1050).
 
012:132 (GEOS:3840) Structural Geology4 s.h.
Rock deformation; description, classification of geologic structures such as faults and folds; processes that generate geologic structures; solution of structural problems; interpretation of geologic maps. Prerequisites: 012:003 (GEOS:1030) or 012:005 (GEOS:1050).
 
012:136 (GEOS:3360) Soil Genesis and Geomorphology3 s.h.
Introduction to soil genesis, soil geomorphology, and classification including the basics of soil profile description and soil‑landscape, soil‑vegetation, and soil‑climate relationships; emphasis on study of soils as the interface between living and non‑living Earth systems and the role of soils in sustaining ecosystems and human societies; short field excursions and a weekend field trip. Requirements: college earth science and chemistry. Same as 044:186 (GEOG:3360).
 
012:138 (GEOS:3380) Fluvial Geomorphology3 s.h.
Hydrologic principles, stream channel processes, and fluvial geomorphology within drainage basin systems; spatial and temporal variations in water distribution, analysis of hydrological data, flow mechanisms, sediment transport, forecasting procedures, hydrograph construction, modeling. Requirements: 012:102 (GEOS:3020) or another 100‑level geology or hydraulics course. Same as 053:128 (CEE:3328).
 
012:139 (GEOS:3390) Integrated Watershed Analysis3 s.h.
Integration of existing knowledge of physical, hydrological, and environmental processes with management issues and challenges in water resources and environmental management; aspects of water quantity and quality, water use and treatment; basin management issues related to forestry, agriculture, urbanization, floods, droughts.
 
012:140 (GEOS:1400) Natural Disasters3 s.h.
How earth‑atmosphere‑hydrosphere‑space systems produce events catastrophic to humans on the scale of individual lives to civilizations; root causes of earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, floods, hurricanes, tsunami, tornadoes, and asteroid impact, and their local, national, and global impact; spatial and temporal occurrences of these hazards; methods and processes for hazard preparedness, response, and recovery; social, economic, and policy aspects that affect and compound the magnitude of disasters associated with natural phenomena; case studies drawn from contemporary and ancient societies. GE: Natural Sciences without Lab.
 
012:141 (GEOS:3410) Analytical Methods2 s.h.
Theory and practice of analyzing the chemical, isotopic, and mineralogical compositions of rocks, organic materials, and waters; use of modern analytical instruments. Offered spring semesters. Prerequisites: 004:007 (CHEM:1070), 012:150 (GEOS:3500), and 029:012 (PHYS:1512) or 029:082 (PHYS:1612).
 
012:142 (GEOS:4420) Vertebrate Osteology and Phylogeny3 s.h.
Anatomy of the vertebrate skeleton from developmental, functional, and phylogenetic perspectives; relationship between skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems; history of the skeleton through modern forms; lecture and laboratory. Prerequisites: 012:122 (GEOS:3220) or 213:190 (ANTH:3305).
 
012:144 (GEOS:4440) Phylogenetics and Biodiversity3 s.h.
Methods available for reconstructing evolutionary history and measuring biodiversity, including distance, parsimony, likelihood, and taxic approaches; applications to molecular and morphological systematics, historical biogeography, study of diversity through time. Prerequisites: 012:004 (GEOS:1040) or 012:121 (GEOS:3210), or 002:010 and 002:011, or 002:031 (BIOL:1411) and 002:032 (BIOL:1412).
 
012:145 (GEOS:4450) Morphometrics1-3 s.h.
Quantitative methods for collection and analysis of morphologic data, including 2‑D and 3‑D geometric morphometrics and use of multivariate statistical methods to study of size and shape; applications of morphometric techniques to study development, adaptation, variation within and among species, related topics in paleontology and evolutionary biology. Offered alternate years. Prerequisites: 012:004 (GEOS:1040) or 012:121 (GEOS:3210).
 
012:149 (GEOS:4490) Elements of Geochemistry3 s.h.
Introduction to application of chemical principles to solution of geologic problems concerning earth and environmental processes; origin of elements, chemical differentiation of Earth and the solar system, geochronology, application of radiogenic and stable isotopes, chemical equilibrium, elementary thermodynamics and kinetics, carbonate and silicate stability relationships, chemical weathering, adsorption, trace element behavior, oxidation‑reduction reactions, characterization of surface and ground waters, and ocean chemistry. Prerequisites: 004:008 (CHEM:1080) and 012:005 (GEOS:1050).
 
012:150 (GEOS:3500) Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology4 s.h.
Nature, origin, and petrography of igneous and metamorphic rocks in hand specimen and thin‑section. Offered spring semesters. Prerequisites: 012:003 (GEOS:1030) or 012:005 (GEOS:1050), 22M:001 (MATH:0100) or 22M:003 (MATH:0300) or 22M:005 (MATH:1010), 004:007 (CHEM:1070) or 004:011 (CHEM:1110), and 012:041 (GEOS:2410).
 
012:152 (GEOS:4520) Isotope Geochemistry3 s.h.
Radiogenic and stable isotope systematics, applications to geological, cosmological, and environmental problems.
 
012:156 (GEOS:4156) Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysisarr.
Microscopy methods for research; all aspects of research, from sample preparation to imaging to data analysis; when to use a particular microscopy procedure; theory, operation, and application of scanning electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopy, laser scanning microscopy, X‑ray microanalysis. Requirements: a physical science course. Same as 052:156 (CBE:4156), 060:156 (ACB:4156).
 
012:159 (GEOS:3090) Topics in Museum Studies1 s.h.
Systematic and analytic methods used for research in physical collections; tutorials in collection building, curation, and preservation; designed by members of the University of Iowa Collections Coalition. Same as 024:190 (MUSM:3090).
 
012:160 (GEOS:4200) Advanced Collection Care and Management3 s.h.
Builds on 024:120 (MUSM:3200); types of museum objects and materials, their care and management; care, storage, and use of paper, books, photographs, works of art, electronic information media, textiles, furniture, archaeological artifacts, natural history specimens, archives; digitization projects, integrated pest management, risk assessment, museum security, museum construction and renovation, grant writing; for students planning museum careers or for professions that require care of collections. Prerequisites: 012:120 (GEOS:3200) or 024:120 (MUSM:3200). Same as 024:140 (MUSM:4200).
 
012:166 (GEOS:4630) Hydrogeology3 s.h.
Role of groundwater in water cycle, subsurface water profile, aquifers and aquitards, basic principles and laws of physical and chemical processes of groundwater flow and contaminant transport in geological formations for sustainable development and protection of groundwater resources; groundwater geology and hydrology, regional aquifer systems, well hydraulics, slug/bail and pumping test and their analyses, groundwater contamination and remediation, management and sustainability of groundwater resources.
 
012:168 (GEOS:4680) Field Methods in Hydrologic Science3 s.h.
Collection and interpretation of physical hydrology and hydraulics field measurements; basic data quality assurance and quality control; hands‑on experience with field equipment and data collection; may lead to Hydrologic Technician Certification by American Institute of Hydrology. Prerequisites: 012:102 (GEOS:3020) or 012:112 (GEOS:4831) or 012:130 (GEOS:3300) or 012:136 (GEOS:3360) or 012:138 (GEOS:3380) or 012:139 (GEOS:3390) or 012:166 (GEOS:4630) or 012:172 (GEOS:4720) or 012:179 (GEOS:4790) or 012:180 (GEOS:4800) or 053:071 (CEE:3371) or 057:020 (ENGR:2510) or 159:102 (ENVS:3020).
 
012:170 (GEOS:4700) Evolution of Ecosystems3 s.h.
Evolutionary history of terrestrial and marine ecosystems; ecological processes from population to ecosystem levels; community assembly, trophic levels, networks, biodiversity dynamics; practical aspects of paleoecological data collection, statistical analysis, modeling. Requirements: two courses in geoscience, biology, environmental sciences, anthropology, or geography. Same as 159:170 (ENVS:4700).
 
012:171 (GEOS:4710) Evolution of Plants3 s.h.
Evolutionary history of plants over geologic time: relationships, morphology, and fossil record of major plant lineages; patterns and processes in evolution of plant morphology and diversity; ecological innovations and evolution of terrestrial ecosystems; relationships between biotic and environmental change; paleobotanical tools in stratigraphy, paleoclimatology, sedimentology; practical aspects of paleobotanical data collection, statistical analysis, modeling; field trip. Requirements: two courses in geoscience, anthropology, biology, environmental science, or geography.
 
012:172 (GEOS:4720) Glacial and Pleistocene Geology3 s.h.
Introduction to glaciers and glacial and interglacial Earth systems; linkages among glacial, oceanic, and atmospheric systems and their effects on landscapes and biota over the past two million years; how oceans, atmosphere, and glaciers interact and landscape effects of past glacial and interglacial cycles. Requirements: physical geology or physical geography or anthropology.
 
012:174 (GEOS:3206) Seminar: Taphonomy3 s.h.
Taphonomy (study of fossil record in paleontology and archaeology); processes for accumulation, modification, and deposition of remains in prehistory; instruction by archaeologist and paleontologist. Requirements: graduate standing. Same as 113:174 (ANTH:3206).
 
012:175 (GEOS:4750) Mineral and Petroleum Exploration Geology3 s.h.
Fundamentals of resource exploration philosophy and methods, with project‑based presentation of techniques and strategies for mineral exploration and petroleum exploration; integration and evaluation of geological, geochemical, and geophysical techniques for mineral exploration; hydrocarbon systems and seismic interpretation for petroleum exploration. Corequisites: 012:132 (GEOS:3840) and 012:150 (GEOS:3500).
 
012:177 (GEOS:3770) Global Stratigraphy3 s.h.
Types of stratigraphy (e.g., biostratigraphy, lithostratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy, chemostratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, cyclostratigraphy, chronostratigraphy) that share a number of procedures and practices and how differences cloud understanding of Earth history; central role of stratigraphy in modern geoscience pursuits; issue of time in stratigraphic record as an organizing theme for investigation of comparative stratigraphy.
 
012:178 (GEOS:4870) Applied Geostatistics3 s.h.
Applications of geostatistical methods to geology, geography, hydrology, environmental sciences, and engineering; variogram, Kriging, analysis of spatial‑varied data with varied computer software in participants' specialties. Same as 044:188 (GEOG:4870).
 
012:179 (GEOS:4790) Engineering Geology3 s.h.
Application of geology, water, and earth processes to civil and environmental engineering practice; physical properties of rock and soil, geologic mapping and surveying, groundwater supplies and wells, stream engineering, watershed management, site investigations for environmental assessment, and geologic hazards. Prerequisites: 012:003 (GEOS:1030) or 012:005 (GEOS:1050) or 012:008 (GEOS:1080).
 
012:180 (GEOS:4800) Survey of Geophysical Methods3 s.h.
Geophysical methods used to address geological and engineering problems (e.g., finding petroleum and mineral deposits, studying groundwater resources, tracing contaminant plumes, evaluating archaeological sites); methods including gravity, magnetics, radiometrics, refraction and reflection seismography, geophysical well logging, and geoelectrical methods (direct current, frequency‑ and time‑domain electromagnetics, induced polarization, magnetic resonance surveying, ground‑penetrating radar); capabilities, drawbacks, costs; planning and budgeting surveys, processing the resulting digital data. Requirements: introductory geology or physics.
 
012:184 (GEOS:4660) Groundwater Modeling3 s.h.
Groundwater flow and contaminant transport modeling; numerical methods, applications of groundwater modeling to water supply, groundwater resources evaluation, remediation design using software; GMS (MODFLOW, MODPATH, and MT3D). Prerequisites: 012:166 (GEOS:4630) or 053:103 (CEE:4103), and 22M:026 (MATH:1860). Same as 053:104 (CEE:4104).
 
012:185 (GEOS:4620) Approaches to Geoarchaeology3 s.h.
Geoarchaeology as multidisciplinary contextual framework for human paleoecology; natural processes that create the archaeological record, approaches to reconstructing landscapes of the past as a context for archaeological deposits; weekend field trip. Prerequisites: 012:136 (GEOS:3360) or 012:172 (GEOS:4720) or 113:161 (ANTH:3205) or 113:164 (ANTH:4205). Same as 113:189 (ANTH:4620).
 
012:189 (GEOS:5120) Global Change Seminar1-2 s.h.
Current global change issues, including climate change, ecosystem changes and conservation, energy; seminar format with student presentations.
 
012:191 (GEOS:5820) Tectonics3 s.h.
Dynamic processes responsible for crustal genesis, plate movements, mountain building; plate boundary zones; sedimentologic, structural, petrologic, geophysical characteristics of major tectonic settings; multidisciplinary approach; week‑long field trip. Prerequisites: 012:132 (GEOS:3840).
 
012:193 (GEOS:3150) Sustainability Projectarr.
Individual or collective project related to sustainability by a student or students under the direction and supervision of a faculty member; involves regularly scheduled meetings, data collection and interpretation, and a final project report.
 

Primarily for Graduate Students

012:201 (GEOS:5010) Geoscience Seminar Series1 s.h.
Scholarly work and research in geoscience.
 
012:207 (GEOS:5070) Geologic Orientation1 s.h.
Department degree requirements, programs; field survey of local geology; tips for TAs; introduction to specialized facilities; for new graduate students.
 
012:215 (GEOS:5015) American Association of Petroleum Geologists Fall Field Trip1 s.h.
Resource‑related topics in mineral and hydrocarbon exploration; joint field trip with Iowa State University. Requirements: AAPG student chapter member or graduate standing, and basic understanding of mineralogy, petrology, and structural geology.
 
012:225 (GEOS:6250) Paleontology Seminar1-3 s.h.
Current controversial issues in paleontology. Recommendations: 012:121 (GEOS:3210).
 
012:233 (GEOS:5330) Carbonate Petrology2 s.h.
Identification of constituents and interpretation of genesis, structures, environments of formation, and patterns and processes of diagenesis in limestones; laboratory‑based. Requirements: familiarity with optical microscope and sedimentation principles.
 
012:235 (GEOS:5350) Depositional Environments3-4 s.h.
Modern patterns of sedimentation; emphasis on interpreting depositional environments of ancient sedimentary rocks and deciphering resulting stratigraphic patterns. Requirements: knowledge of basic sedimentary geology and paleontology.
 
012:238 (GEOS:5380) Process Geomorphology1-3 s.h.
Topics in process geomorphology ranging from fluvial dynamics to mass movement to sediment transport and related environmental processes.
 
012:239 (GEOS:6390) Advanced Watershed Analysis Seminar1-3 s.h.
Integration of existing knowledge of physical, hydrological, and environmental processes with management issues and challenges in water resources and environmental management; aspects of water quantity and quality, water use and treatment, and basin management issues related to forestry, agriculture, urbanization, floods, droughts.
 
012:253 (GEOS:5530) Geochronology3 s.h.
How to evaluate published ages, and assumptions/errors involved; how to select and sample suitable materials for dating, and choose a suitable dating method and analytical technique; opportunity to develop skills for research and professional careers. Prerequisites: 012:149 (GEOS:4490) or 012:152 (GEOS:4520).
 
012:257 (GEOS:6570) Tectonics and Petrology Seminar1-2 s.h.
Topics in tectonics, structural geology, petrology.
 
012:293 (GEOS:6920) Advanced Structural Geology3 s.h.
Kinematic and dynamic analysis of deformed rocks; microstructural analysis; strain analysis, field investigations of highly deformed rocks. Prerequisites: 012:132 (GEOS:3840).
 
012:310 (GEOS:7990) Research: Geosciencearr.
Independent research related to theses or dissertations in geoscience.